I've been reading more general audience science books lately, which is part of the reason for relative quiet here. But it makes for ideas later.
The first book in the experimental line is geared for middle school to junior high students. It's perfectly useful for older folks as well. And it will probably be a good idea to have one at hand for some of the experiments if performed by the younger. 101 Incredible Experiments for the Weekend Scientist by Rob Beattie. The experiments cover a range of things, from making slime to making a cloud. Some weather and climate examples, but not especially aimed to that. The experiment descriptions do also contain a 'how it works' section, which I take to be very important.
The second is geared to an older audience, college age, but I think most experiments and observations can be done by middle school to jr. high students. They just might want someone else to do the translation to more familiar language. That's Clouds in a Glass of Beer: Simple Experiments in Atmospheric Physics by Craig F. Bohren. This is the book (chapter 10) that prompted my Tuesday note. Its 22 chapters include much more by way of explanation of the science behind what you're observing in doing the experiments, and how this ties in to the atmosphere.
In both cases, the authors mention some things that the experimenter can use for proceeding to further experiments. They usually aren't laying it out exactly this way, so keep your eye open for comments like 'best results are for doing X' (using a small tube, for instance, to see surface tension). That's a sign that you can get different results if you use a larger tube, and it can be informative to see just how much the result depends on the size of the tube.